The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) defines biotechnology as “The application of Science and Technology to living organisms as well as parts, products and models thereof, to alter living or nonliving materials for the production of knowledge, goods and services.”
The process of asexual reproduction observed, for example, in bacteria and other unicellular micro-organisms which divide by simple fission, so that the daughter cells are genetically identical to each other and to the parent (except when mutation occurs). In higher organisms, genetically identical individuals may be produced by cloning.
All-inclusive term that describes the deliberate manipulation of genetic material by biochemical techniques. It is often achieved by the introduction of new DNA, usually by means of a virus or plasmid. This can be for pure research, gene therapy, or to breed functionally specific plants, animals, or bacteria.
The application of genetic engineering techniques to alter or replace a defective gene or genes. The procedures are still at the experimental stage, but it is hoped that they could lead to the prevention of hereditary diseases such as haemophilia.
Genetically modified (GM) foods are increasingly controversial as they become more widespread. They have met a barrage of criticism and protest, and public confidence in them is low. New legislation on labelling has been introduced, partly in response to the controversy.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is the capability of devices or mechanisms and machinery to perform functions usually associated with human intelligence, including scientific systems, reasoning, optimization through experience, and automated motor systems.