From The American Economy: A Historical Encyclopedia Controversial 5 to 4 decision handed down June 28, 1978, in which the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional rigid racial quotas, or “set-asides,” for admission to a university medical school.
From The Reader's Companion to American History In Marbury v. Madison (1803) the Supreme Court announced for the first time the principle that a court may declare an act of Congress void if it is inconsistent with the Constitution.
Case decided in 1819 by the U.S. Supreme Court, dealing specifically with the constitutionality of a Congress-chartered corporation, and more generally with the dispersion of power between state and federal governments.
From The Hutchinson unabridged encyclopedia with atlas and weather guide
US Supreme Court decision of 1974 dealing with the extent to which a US president may exercise executive privilege in a criminal investigation. During the Watergate investigations, President Nixon cited this privilege in refusing to produce certain tape recordings that had been subpoenaed by Special Prosecutor Jaworski.
After World War II, the trials of the 24 chief Nazi war criminals November 1945-October 1946 by an international military tribunal consisting of four judges and four prosecutors: one of each from the USA, UK, USSR, and France.
From Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices The 1995 murder trial of former football star, actor, and television commentator O.J. Simpson revealed an abiding racial polarization in American society and brought fundamental issues of race and crime to the forefront of national discourse.
From Encyclopedia of American Studies When Homer Plessy boarded an intrastate Louisiana train on June 7, 1892, his purpose was to challenge Section 2, Act III, passed by the Louisiana state legislature on July 10, 1890, which prescribed “equal but separate accommodations for the white, and colored races” on its intrastate railroads.
From Dictionary of American government and politics
In Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union, the Supreme Court struck down the Communications Decency Act (CDA) which had prohibited the transmission over the Internet of any 'patently offensive' material, including 'any … image or other communication which is obscene or indecent, knowing that the recipient is … under 18 years of age'. It argued that the Act lacked precision and thereby infringed rights under the First Amendment.
Series of trials that took place near Salem, part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, in 1692, in which more than 150 men and women were accused and 19 found guilty of practising witchcraft, then a crime punishable by death.
From Science in the Early Twentieth Century: An Encyclopedia William Jennings Bryan (1860–1925) believed in 1925 that evolution and Christianity were dueling to the death. In the most famous contest between science and religion in the United States, the former presidential candidate represented fundamentalist Christians.
In 1931 nine black youths were indicted at Scottsboro, Ala., on charges of having raped two white women in a freight car passing through Alabama. In a series of trials the youths were found guilty and sentenced to death or to prison terms of 75 to 99 years.
From Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History Noted 1969 U.S. Supreme Court case involving three high school students from Des Moines, Iowa, whose symbolic protest against the Vietnam War resulted in expanded First Amendment protections for expressive speech in public education.
US legislation that outlawed discrimination on the grounds of a person's colour, race, national origin, religion, or sex. Rights protected under the act include a person's freedom to seek employment. The act is considered the USA's strongest civil-rights legislation since Reconstruction.
(1966), law requiring that U.S. government agencies release their records to the public on request, unless the information sought falls into a category specifically exempted, such as national security, an individual's right to privacy, or internal agency management.
Bill that became law on May 30, 1854, by which the U.S. Congress established the territories of Kansas and Nebraska. By 1854 the organization of the vast Platte and Kansas river countries W of Iowa and Missouri was overdue.
Clause of the Educational Amendments of 1972 that reads: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance."
[Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorists], 2001, U.S. federal law intended to give federal authorities increased abilities to combat international and domestic terrorism.